By Olav Slaymaker
This is often the 1st textbook to think about all features of the cryosphere method within the context of world environmental swap pushed by means of human job and climate.- Considers all six facets of the cryosphere – ice sheets, glacier ice, permafrost, river and lake ice, sea ice and snow – within the context of world environmental switch pushed via human task and climate.
- Describes a brand new proposal of cryosphere transience and panorama transition which hyperlinks weather, hydrology, ecology and geomorphology.
- seems on the facts, method, and styles of cryosphere swap, on neighborhood and international scales.
- presents a wealth of information to notify the present international environmental swap debate.
_________Первый учебник, рассматривающий все аспекты криосферной системы в контексте глобальных изменений окружающей среды, вызванных человеческой деятельностью и климатом.
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Additional info for The Cryosphere and Global Environmental Change
According to Magnusson et al. (2000), freeze-up and break-up dates of ice on lakes and rivers provide consistent evidence of later freeze-up and earlier break-up around the northern hemisphere from 1846 to 1995. They examined 39 time series from Russia, Finland, Japan, Canada, USA, and Switzerland. Under conditions of overall annual warming, the duration of river ice cover can be expected to be reduced (see Chapter 3). Many rivers within temperate regions 15 would tend to become ice-free, whereas in colder regions the present ice season could be shortened by up to one month by 2050.
Incorporates subjective probability distributions for model parameter values based on expert opinion. †† Represents 90% confidence interval. 5°C for the low and high projections, respectively. Also see Raper et al. (1996). 2°C climate sensitivity. 3 Estimates of future global sea level rise in centimeters (from Warrick et al. 1996). qxd 10/13/06 9:02 PM Page 21 THE EVIDENCE FOR CRYOSPHERIC CHANGE but there is also considerable uncertainty over the possible dynamic responses on timescales of centuries.
The response of Greenland to warming is likely to be different. Both the melt rates at the margins and the accumulation rates in the interior should increase. Because the melt rates are likely to be greater than the accumulation rates, the mass balance will become negative. In southwest Greenland there has been a general retreat of outlet glaciers since the end of the 19th century and general trends have been extrapolated together with the net effect of predicted warming over the next two centuries.