Read e-book online A Dictionary of Human Rights PDF

By D. Robertson

This e-book deals a entire advisor to files and enterprises that are interested in the problems of human rights. It comprises updated definitions and brief essays approximately all the three hundred entries. The entries are prepared alphabetically, cross-referenced, and divided into neighborhood and nationwide alterations. causes of the felony elements and implications also are integrated. The publication lists corporations that are fascinated about human rights, together with Amnesty overseas, eu fee on Human Rights and Conseil d'Etat. It additionally lists a number of extracts from files written approximately human rights, together with the "Bill of Rights 1688", the "European Social constitution" and the "Convention opposed to Torture". The ebook discusses the fundamental rules of rights and liberties, and the position of conventions, declarations, courts, tribunals and criminal structures upholding them. It offers concise outlines of the overall positons on human rights for all top constructed nations. it may be worthy to public and educational libraries, scholars, lecturers, reporters and any association or person with an curiosity in human rights matters.

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This strategy was at the heart of civil rights legislation in the 1960s, and, for example, the 1968 Fair Housing Act prohibits discrimination in the sale or rental of housing where any federal funds are involved. The weakness is obvious; if an institution, say a college, is capable of doing without state funding at all, there is no effective way of preventing discrimination. Nevertheless, these acts, and later ones like the Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1971, and acts banning discrimination in the provision of financial credit, have done much to eradicate not only racial but also sex discrimination .

This, sometimes known as the fruit of the poisoned tree doctrine, is not followed very far by European courts, which argue that the actual probative value of the evidence is not tainted, and that the injured party has full recourse to the law in an action for damages if the police have misbehaved. Other rights intended to offset the dangers of misuse of power include the right to a speedy trial, which causes a considerable amount of litigation under the European Convention on Human Rights , and related questions about pre-trial detention .

The notion of citizenship is in sharp contrast to the historically rival notion of being a subject. In countries ruled by a powerful monarch, subjects owed their sovereign unquestioning obedience and allegiance, and could even be said to be his property. A citizen, on the other hand, is himself part of the sovereign, when sovereignty comes to be seen as a collective attribute of the people. Thus in ancient Greece there was a clear distinction between citizens and non-citizens, namely women, slaves and resident aliens, who nevertheless lived legitimately in the city state and were obliged to obey its laws.

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