By David Wright
For one hundred fifty years, Down's Syndrome has constituted the archetypal psychological incapacity, simply recognisable through certain facial anomalies and actual stigmata. In a slender clinical experience, Down's syndrome is a standard ailment because of the presence of all or a part of an additional twenty first chromosome. it really is named after John Langdon Down, the British asylum clinical superintendent who defined the syndrome as Mongolism in a sequence of lectures in 1866. In 1959, the sickness was
identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy via the French paediatrician and geneticist Jérôme Lejeune and has because been often called Down's Syndrome (in the English-speaking global) or Trisomy 21 (in many eu countries). yet childrens and adults born with this chromosomal abnormality have a big collective
history past their glaring significance to the background of scientific science.
David Wright, a Professor within the background of medication at McMaster collage, appears to be like on the care and therapy of Down's victims - defined for far of heritage as 'idiots', - from Medieval Europe to the current day. the invention of the genetic foundation of the situation and the profound alterations in attitudes, care, and early id of Down's within the genetic period, displays the attention-grabbing clinical and social background of the illness.
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Additional info for Downs : the history of a disability
1831. (National Portrait Gallery, London) 26 the philosopher’s idiot by Kay is suggestive of Down’s Syndrome, though any deﬁnitive conclusion will ultimately escape posterity. 13 Many of the principles of the Poor Laws traveled across the Atlantic with the ﬁrst generation of migrants to the American colonies and were shaped by the imperatives of Puritanism and the exigencies of settler societies. An ‘Act for the Relief of Ideots and Distracted Persons’ (1694) in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for example, set out measures to assist destitute persons who had no one to take care of them.
He cultivated an interest in the idiotic and feeble-minded and collaborated with Edward Séguin at Barre, Massachusetts before accepting a few pupils into his own home in 1848. In 1851 he convinced the legislature of New York to establish an experimental school for the feeble-minded at Albany which proved a success. The school was permanently established as the State Asylum for Idiots at Syracuse, New York in 1854 with Wilbur as its superintendent. Throughout his life Wilbur was concerned with the welfare and education of the feeble-minded, inﬂuenced a great deal by the principles and practices of Séguin.
His biggest contribution to Enlightenment thinking was his support for individual consent as the basis for political legitimacy, as articulated most famously in his Two Treatises of Government (1689). Locke argued that citizens had an obligation to rise up against any government that abused the protections of life, liberty, and property, the basis on which government was formed in the ﬁrst place. Individuals came together consenting to give up a certain amount of personal power, in order to pursue peace and justice—a theory now known as the Social Contract.