Plural and Conflicting Values (Clarendon Paperbacks) by Michael Stocker PDF

By Michael Stocker

Plural and conflicting values are usually held to be conceptually challenging, threatening the very probability of ethics, or a minimum of rational ethics. Rejecting this view, Stocker first demonstrates why it's so very important to appreciate the problems raised by way of plural and conflicting values, concentrating on Aristotle's therapy of them. He then exhibits that plurality and clash are standard and customarily unproblematic positive factors of our daily selection and motion, and they do enable for a valid and rational ethics.

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But for a fuller understanding of dirty hands, some other points should be made—some supporting and some taking away from that connection. First, some have a problem in seeing how even a paradigm case of dirty hands such as Walzer's torture case involves being morally coerced to help implement an immoral project. They object that there is no reason to think that the person who may be tortured, or those he acted with, intended that he be tortured. However, for this to serve as an objection, it must follow from an act's not being intended that it is not part of a project.

Attending the department meeting. Some who agree that it is all right to do these other acts deny that they involve contrary-to-duty options. They deny that in these circumstances we may justifiably not do our duty, holding rather that these are cases where it is all right not to do what, but for those other considerations, would be our duty. However, this disagreement is far less important than what we agree about: that considerations of duty are not always decisive. My conclusion, then, is that for reasons independent of admirable immorality we must reject the view that considerations of duty are the only moral considerations or are always decisive.

11 It is clear that these acts involve harms, perhaps wrongs, and also betrayals and violations. It is also clear that they involve, perhaps require, regrets and even compunction. Many think it clear that leaving the relationship can be justified. It is unclear whether taking the needed organs could be justified. Few things are clear about the sacrifice case. I have found little agreement over the question of whether any of these three are cases of dirty hands. But I have found considerable agreement that the fourth, fifth, and sixth cases do involve dirty hands.

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