Download PDF by Sudhansu Chokroverty: Sleep Disorders Medicine. Basic Science, Technical

By Sudhansu Chokroverty

The second one variation comprises six new chapters and provides info of the basic points of the technology of sleep, the technical tools of recording for prognosis and type of sleep issues, and a medical method of sufferers with sleep court cases. additionally contains descriptions of numerous sleep issues and disturbances

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Reinoso-Suarez F, Rodrigo-Angulo ML, RodriquezVeiga E, et al. Thalamic connections of the oral pontinetegmentum sites whose cholinergic stimulation pro­ duces enhancement of paradoxical sleep signs. In: Mancia M, Marini G, eds. The Diencephalon and Sleep. New York: Raven, 1990. 8. Mitani A, Ito K, Hallanger AH, et al. Cholinergic projections from the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei to the pontine gigantocellular tegmental field in the cat. Brain Res 1988;451:397402 9. Yanagihara M, Ito K, Dauphin L, et al.

1 The first stage, consid­ ered to be a transition stage from waking to sleep, is characterized by a mixture of low-amplitude, mixedfrequency EEG waves, including beta activity and some theta activity (4 to 7 Hz). As sleep deepens, the EEG shows mostly theta activity, punctuated period­ ically by either high-amplitude biphasic waves called K complexes or fast, rhythmic waves called spindles (12 to 14 Hz). This stage, designated stage 2, is considered to be part of true sleep. 5 to 2 Hz), stage 3 having 20% to 50% of an epoch (usually 20 to 30 seconds) as delta waves and stage 4 more than 50% in delta waves.

43 In rats, systemic administration of the ß-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol, which may decrease noradrenergic activ­ ity, increases wakefulness and inhibits REM sleep,40 whereas in cats, localized administration into the medial pontine reticular formation had no effect on wakefulness but increased REM sleep. 4 4 The nature of this adrenergic interaction still needs to be analyzed, owing to the confusing nature of these observations. One of the most significant side effects of propra­ nolol is drowsiness.

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